ACE Inhibitor: A type of drug used to lower blood pressure. Studies indicate that it may also help prevent or slow the progression of kidney disease in people with diabetes, especially those who have protein (albumin) in the urine.
Queenie is currently using benazepril/hydrochloride an ace inhibtor combined with a diuretic

Acetone: A chemical formed in the blood when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. If acetone forms, it usually means that the cells do not have enough insulin, or cannot use the insulin that is in the blood, to use glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine. Someone with a lot of acetone in the body can have breath that smells fruity and is called "acetone breath."

Acidosis: Too much acid in the body. For a person with diabetes, this can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Acute: Happens for a limited period of time; abrupt onset; sharp, severe.

Adverse Effect: A harmful result.

Alpha Cell: A type of cell in the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans). Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. 

Amyotrophy: A type of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle weakness and wasting

Beta cells: The cells located within the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete insulin. The process leading to Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes appears to start when the immune system recognizes and attacks proteins on the surface of the beta cells, possibly mistaking them for proteins on an invading organism.

BG: Blood Glucose see Blood Glucose

B.I.D.: Twice a Day This is a term used by medical professionals. Usually referring to how many shots are given a day or pills taken per day.

Blood Fasting: A blood sample is drawn in the morning before the animal has eaten.

Blood Glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the three elements of food-proteins, fats, and carbohydrates-but mostly from carbohydrates. Glucose is the major source of energy for living cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. However, the cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.
Normal values for the blood glucose level in the dog range from 3.9 to 5.0 mmol/l (70.27 to 90.1)
and in the cat from 3.4 to 5.7 mmol/l(61.26 to102.7) (fasting).  In cases of potential diabetes mellitus, the value is 5 - 7mmol/l. (90 to 126).
The renal threshold is 10 mmol/l.(180.2 for conversion) Blood glucose levels which exceed this threshold result in excretion of glucose in the urine(glucosuria). In cases of clinical diabetes mellitus, blood glucose levels of 10 mmol/l(180) and higher are found.
To convert from mmol/l (millimoles per litre) to mg/dl (milligrams per decilitre) the factor is 18.02

Blood Glucose Meter: A machine that helps test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. A 
specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood is inserted in a machine, when then calculates the correct level of glucose in the blood sample and shows the result in a digital display.

Blood Glucose Monitoring: A way of testing how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. A drop of 
blood, usually taken from the fingertip(on a human) is placed on the end of a specially coated strip, called a testing strip. The strip has a chemical on it that makes it change color according to how much glucose is in the blood. A person can tell if the level of glucose is low, high, or normal in one of two ways. The first is by comparing the color on the end of the strip to a color chart that is printed on the side of the test strip container. The second is by inserting the strip into a small machine, called a meter, which "reads" the strip and shows the level of blood glucose in a digital window display. Blood testing is more accurate than urine testing in monitoring blood glucose levels because it shows what the current level of glucose is, rather than what the level was an hour or so previously.

Blood glucose profile (curve): A graph of blood glucose levels over time. At the time of insulin 
injection, and at regular intervals throughout the day, the level of glucose in the blood is determined through laboratory testing.

Blood Sugar: See: Blood glucose

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): A waste product of the kidneys. Increased levels of BUN in the blood may indicate early kidney damage. Kidney Disease can be a complication of diabetes.

Brittle Diabetes: A term used when a person's blood glucose (sugar) level often swings quickly from high to low and from low to high. Also called labile and unstable diabetes.

Carbohydrate: One of the main energy nutrients. It supplies energy for the body and is further divided into simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit) and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches).
Carbohydrates are found in all fruits and vegetables, all grain products, dried beans and peas, milk and yogurt. 

Carbohydrates include:
1. Starch: Complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, pasta, whole grain breads and cereals. 
2. Sugar: Simple carbohydrates such as table sugar, honey, the four sugars listed below, and others. 
3. Fructose: The type of sugar found in fruit. It does not require insulin in order for the body to use it. 
4. Glucose: The main type of sugar found in the blood and urine. It is this sugar that is elevated in people with diabetes. Table sugar is half glucose.
5. Lactose: The main sugar found in milk. It needs insulin to be used completely. 
6. Sucrose: Table sugar or "granulated sugar"-the body breaks it down to glucose and fructose. The glucose needs insulin to be used.

Cataract: Clouding of the lens of the eye. In people or pets with diabetes, this condition is sometimes referred to as "sugar cataract." Not all dogs suffer diabetic cataracts, while others do.  It is the 'luck of the draw' and can happen no matter how quickly they are brought under control.  Not a common occurrence in cats - typically only canines.  An early exam by an eye vet is recommended 'before' any trouble starts, so the eye vet has a baseline to work from.  If they wait until the cataract matures, the eye vet can't see into the eye to make sure there is no damage to the retina.  If there is, cataract surgery will do no good in restoring the eye sight. Queenie was diagnosed over seven years ago in April of 1995 and only this past December 2001 has cataracts started to form. Dr. Bob feels they are old age cataracts and not related to her diabetes though she is not a candidate for any kind of elective surgery due to congestive heart failure and her asthma. She has about fifty percent of vision at this time. Touch Wood. Some canines; unfortunately go blind almost immediately. 
See Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) and Dry Eye for additional information about eyes.

Complications of Diabetes: Harmful effects that may happen when a person or pet has diabetes. Some effects, such as hypoglycemia, can happen any time. Others develop when a person has had diabetes for a long time. These include damage to the retina of the eye (retinopathy) or cataracts which are very common in diabetic dogs, the blood vessels (angiopathy), the 
nervous system (neuropathy), and the kidneys (nephropathy). Studies show that keeping blood glucose levels as close to the normal, nondiabetic range as possible may help prevent, slow, or delay harmful effects to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.

Counterregulatory Hormones: Hormones that work against the action of insulin, raising blood glucose levels in response to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The main counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), cortisol, and growth hormone.

C-peptide: "Connecting peptide," a substance the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels shows how much insulin the body is making.

Dawn Phenomenon: A sudden rise in blood glucose levels in the early morning hours. This condition sometimes occurs in people with insulin-dependent diabetes and (rarely) in people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Unlike the Somogyi effect, it is not a result of an insulin reaction. People who have high levels of blood glucose in the mornings before eating may 
need to monitor their blood glucose during the night. If blood glucose levels are rising, adjustments in evening snacks or insulin dosages may be recommended.

dc: diabetic cat (this abbreviation is used in the rainbow pet diabetes email list)

dd: diabetic dog (this abbreviation is used in the rainbow pet diabetes email list)

Dextrose: A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body's main source of energy. Also called 
Glucose. See also: Blood glucose

Diabetes Insipidus: A condition characterized by frequent and heavy urination, excessive thirst, and an overall feeling of weakness. This condition may be caused by a defect in the pituitary gland or in the kidney. In diabetes insipidus, blood glucose levels are normal.

Diabetic Coma: A severe emergency when a pet or person is not conscious because the blood glucose (sugar) is too low or too high. If the glucose level is too low, the person has hypoglycemia; if the level is too high, the person has hyperglycemia and may develop ketoacidosis. 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA): Severe, out-of-control diabetes (high blood sugar) that needs emergency treatment. DKA happens when blood sugar levels get too high. This may happen because of illness, taking too little insulin, or getting too little exercise. The body starts using stored fat for energy, and ketone bodies (acids) build up in the blood. Ketoacidosis starts slowly and builds up. The signs include nausea and vomiting, which can lead to loss of water from the body, stomach pain, and deep and rapid breathing. Other signs are a flushed face, dry skin and mouth, a fruity breath odor or  breath smelling like fingernail polish remover, a rapid and weak pulse, and low blood pressure. If the person is not given fluids and insulin right away, ketoacidosis can lead to coma and even death. See: Ketoacidosis

Diabetes Mellitus: A condition characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin and therefore blood glucose cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use insulin correctly. The signs of diabetes include having to urinate often, losing weight, getting very thirsty, and being hungry all the time. Pets with untreated or undiagnosed diabetes are thirsty and have to urinate often because glucose builds to a high level in the bloodstream and the kidneys are working hard to flush out the extra amount. Pets and people with untreated diabetes often get hungry and tired because the body is not able to use food the way it should.

Dry Eye: Diabetic dogs may be prone to this condition where tear production is abnormally low or absent.  Tears nourish the cornea (surface of the eye) keeping it healthy.  Lack of tears causes the cornea to become dry and painful and can lead to serious problems.  A sign of this condition is a greenish or white milky discharge from the eyes.  The eye vet can test for tear production and this condition can be treated with drops. About "dry eye", the eye specialist insisted that this condition is not related to the diabetes, but a friend found me an article stating that this is a common problem with diabetic dogs. (from Anne Fiorenzo)
See Cataracts and Progressive Retinal Atrophy for more information concerning eyes. 

dx: when diagnosed

Fats: One of the energy nutrients. Total fat includes:
1. Polyunsaturated fats: Fats found mainly in vegetable oils.
2. Saturated fats: Fats found mainly in animal foods.
3. Monounsaturated fats: Fats that have one double bond. It is high in olive and canola oils. When large amounts (3 Tbsp) are consumed each day, blood cholesterol levels will be lower. 
4. Cholesterol and Triglyceride: Fats present in foods and in our bodies. High cholesterol and triglyceride blood levels for many years are a cause of "clogged" blood vessels and heart attacks.

Fiber: The parts of plants in food that are not absorbed by the body. A substance found in foods that come from plants. Fiber helps in the digestive process and is thought to lower cholesterol and help control blood glucose (sugar). The two types of fiber in food are soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber, found in beans, fruits, and oat products, dissolves in water and is thought to help lower blood fats and blood glucose (sugar). Insoluble fiber, found in whole-grain products and vegetables, passes directly through the digestive system, helping to rid the body of waste products. I add raw oat bran to Queenie's food for additional fiber and others on the list use canned pumpkin. Many vets will recommend a high fiber dog food such as science diet w/d for diabetic pets.

Fructose: A type of sugar found in many fruits and vegetables and in honey. 
Fructose is used to sweeten some diet foods. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has calories.

Fructosamine: This is a simple blood test that measures the average glycemic (glucose) control over a period of several weeks.  This test covers only a 2-3 week period in canines, 1-2 weeks in cats. The test shows how much glucose has bound to the proteins in the blood.  The specific proteins that are tested in this test only have a span of 2-3 weeks.  Not good to adjust insulin, just a means of monitoring overall control.  If a dog is rebounding, the test can show an 'average' reading due to the high and low swings caused by the rebounding, but consistent highs show lack of control.

Glipizide: An oral medication that can be used to control blood glucose levels in some diabetic cats who still have some insulin production.

Glucagon: A hormone that raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. The alpha cells of the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans) make glucagon when the body needs to put more sugar into the blood. An injectable form of glucagon, which can be bought in a drug store, is 
sometimes used to treat insulin shock. The glucagon is injected and quickly raises blood glucose levels. See also: Alpha cell.

Glucose:A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body's main source of energy; also known as dextrose. See also: Blood glucose.

Glucosuria: glucose in the urine. (Also called glycosuria)

Glycemic Response: The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.

Glycogen: A storage form of glucose in the body.

Glycosuria: Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin - A1c (HbA1c) - similar to fructosamine test, but more expensive.  It covers about a 3 month period.  It tests the proteins in the blood that have an average span of 3 months. On good as a tool to
monitor overall control.  You can get an average reading with a rebound situation, but consistent highs show lack of control.

Honeymoon Phase: temporary remission of hyperglycemia that occurs in some people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, when some insulin secretion resumes for a short time, usually a few months, before stopping again. Cats tend to honeymoon ... unfortunately canines don't.

Hyperglycemia: higher than normal blood glucose level. Too high a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood; a sign that diabetes is out of control. Many things can cause hyperglycemia. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have to turn glucose 
into energy. Signs of hyperglycemia are a great thirst, a dry mouth, and a need to urinate often. For people or pets with insulin-dependent diabetes, hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hyperinsulinemia: A condition in which the level of insulin in the blood is higher than normal. Caused by overproduction of insulin by the body. Related to insulin resistance.

Hyperlipidemia: Higher than normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS): An emergency condition in which one's blood glucose level is very high and ketones are not present in the blood or urine. If HHNS is not treated, it can lead to coma or death. 

Hypoglycemia: lower than normal blood glucose level (a Medical Emergency that needs immediate administration of a fast acting glucose. In diabetic animals treated with insulin there is some risk that hypoglycemia may occur. A dog or cat to may die of this condition and owners should be appropriately warned and trained by the veterinary team responsible for their pet's management. 
It is most likely to happen if the animal is accidentally over-dosed with insulin, over-exercised or fails to eat its morning meal. The first noticeable clinical sign is hunger followed by lethargy and sleepiness. If untreated, stumbling and staggering ensue followed progressively by 
twitching, convulsions, coma and death.

I think my pet is having a Hypoglycemic episode, what should I do?
If the animal is still conscious, treatment is by offering food. If it is unable to eat, then glucose must be administered by mouth or by intravenous injection. Dissolved glucose powder or syrup (such as Karo white corn syrup) will be absorbed quickly through the mucosa if poured into the side of the mouth. Rub it on the gums and tongue. It is not necessary for it to be swallowed. HYPOSTOP or GLUTOSE 45 are a 40% dextrose gels which are convenient to carry and easily 
administered orally. There are also 20 and 40% dextrose (a form of glucose) solutions available for the veterinarian to use in emergency treatment. Or carry those little tubes of icing found in grocery stores.

IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus): Former term for type 1 diabetes

Injection: Putting liquid into the body with a needle and syringe. A person with diabetes injects insulin by putting the needle into the tissue under the skin (called subcutaneous). Other ways of giving medicine or nourishment by injection are to put the needle into a vein (intravenous) or into a muscle (intramuscular).

Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas which is necessary for glucose to be able to enter the cells of the body and be used for energy.

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): A form of diabetes in which so little insulin is produced that supplemental insulin must be given for the animal to live. Also called Type I diabetes mellitus.

Insulin Pen: An insulin injection device the size of a pen that includes a needle and holds a vial of insulin. It can be used instead of syringes for giving insulin injections.(Queenie uses the pen system and so does my mother)

Insulin Reaction: Too low a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood; also called hypoglycemia

Insulin Resistance: A condition in which the blood glucose level remains higher than it should at an insulin dosage of 2 units/pound of body weight per day in cats.

Insulin Shock: see hypoglycemia.

Judy Dick: Owner of Queenie and the website 

Karo Syrup: Karo Syrup is a brand name in the United States for corn syrup. You can also use honey, maple syrup etc...A fast acting glucose to rub on the gums and tongue if you find your pet trembling or displaying symptoms of hypoglycemia. A Fast-Acting Carbohydrate like karo syrup will raise blood glucose levels relatively quickly when ingested. The term "fast-acting carbohydrate" is generally used in discussions of treating hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar

Ketoacidosis: A life-threatenting condition in which ketones, which result from the breakdown of fat for energy, accumulate in the blood stream and the pH of the blood decreases.
Ketoacidosis is when the body has an insufficient supply of insulin it cannot metabolize carbohydrates.  Because of this inability to metabolize carbohydrates, the muscles become starved for glucose needed to provide the energy for work.  In order to get that needed energy, the muscle breaks down fat.  Fat, when metabolized produces the by-products called Ketones, which are normally excreted in the urine.  If the body is unable to clear the ketones through the kidneys, they build to toxic levels and eventually lead to ketoacidosis. At the same time the body is producing ketones, it is not using glucose. The kidneys, through the production of urine, must 
remove both.  The higher the ketones and unused glucose levels, the more urine must be produced and the body will become dehydrated.

What are signs of ketoacidosis?
polyuria (excessive urination)
polydipsia (excessive water consumption)
High blood-sugar levels
High levels of ketones in the urine
Constantly tired Anorexia, nausea, vomiting (vomiting can be caused by many illnesses,not just ketoacidosis!) Abdominal pain
A hard time breathing (short, deep breaths)
Acetone odor(smells like nail polish remover)or a fruity sticky sweet smell on breath
A hard time paying attention, or confusion.
Dehydration, (sunken eyeball, reduced tissue turgor, dry tongue)
Evidence of precipitation illness (MI, Infection)

Ketonuria: A condition occurring when ketones are present in the urine, a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Lancet: A pointed piece of surgical steel encased in plastic, used to puncture the skin on one's finger (or other body part) to get a blood sample. 

Lancet Device: A lancing device uses a spring to drive the lancet into the skin and retract it very quickly. It also allows the user to change the depth of penetration depending on the thickness of the skin and calluses and the sensitivity of the fingertips. In this way, enough blood can be obtained without causing unnecessary pain. A lot of owners don't use the device but just the lancet to obtain a blood sample because some dog's skin tend to be thicker then humans and the device doesn't insert the lancet deep enough.

Low Blood Sugar: See hypoglycemia.

Metformin: An oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver and helping the body respond better to the insulin made in the pancreas. Belongs to the class of medicines called biguanides. (Brand names: Glucophage, Glucophage XR; an ingredient in Glucovance.)

mg/dL: milligrams per deciliter, a unit of measure that shows the concentration of a substance in a specific amount of fluid. In the United States, blood glucose test results are reported as mg/dL. Medical journals and other countries use millimoles per liter (mmol/L). To convert to mg/dL from mmol/L, multiply mmol/L by 18. Example: 10 mmol/L × 18 = 180 mg/dL.

mmol/L: millimoles per liter, a unit of measure that shows the concentration of a substance in a specific amount of fluid. In most of the world, except for the United States, blood glucose test results are reported as mmol/L. In the United States, milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is used. To convert to mmol/L from mg/dL, divide mg/dL by 18. Example: 180 mg/dL ÷ 18 = 10 mmol/L.

Nadir: The lowest point or peak. Refers to the lowest blood glucose point on the bg curve

Nephropathy: Abnormal functioning of the kidney.

Neuropathy: Abnormal functioning of nerves.

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): A type of diabetes mellitus in which although the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, they are not immediately life-threatening, and the animal can survive without supplemental insulin. Also called Type II diabetes.Cats can sometimes be treated with pills instead of insulin but dogs always need research. Maybe in time this will change.

Oral hypoglycemic agent: A medication, given by mouth, which lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Example: glipizide

Pancreas: The organ that makes insulin and enzymes for digestion. 

Peak: The lowest point or nadir. Refers to the lowest blood glucose point on the bg curve.

Plantigrade stance: Standing and walking with the hocks on or almost touching the floor.

Polydipsia: excessive thirst resulting in excessive drinking of water

Polyphagia: excessive ingestion of food

Polyuria: excessive urination

Post-Prandial: After food

Postprandial Blood Glucose: The blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after eating.

PP: see post-prandial

Preprandial Blood Glucose: The blood glucose level taken before eating.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)- A disease which results in thinning, shrinking retinal cells and central or total blindness.  This happens gradually. About PRA, here's where I totally agree with Val regarding getting them to an eye specialist for a baseline which my regular vet did not recomment, but we did it anyway.  The eye doctor saw this before Max developed cataracts.   Max is not  a candidate for cataract surgery as a result of this condition.(from Anne & Max) See also cataracts and dry eye for additional information about eyes.

Protein:  One of the three main nutrients in food. Proteins are made of amino acids, which are called the building blocks of the cells. The cells need proteins to grow and to mend themselves
1. Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk, dairy products, eggs, and dried beans. 
2. Proteins are also used in the body for cell structure, hormones such as insulin, and other functions.

Proteinuria: The presence of protein in the urine, indicating that the kidneys are not working properly.

Queenie: Miniature American Eskimo diagnosed with diabetes in April of 1995 and still has some vision in September of 2002. One of the main reasons for the website

Rebound Hyperglycemia: A swing to a high level of glucose in the blood after a low level. See Somogyi effect.

Regulation: Using insulin to maintain the blood glucose level of an animal within the acceptable range.

Renal: To do with the kidney

Renal Threshold: Blood glucose concentration above which glucose leaks into urine. Usually a 180 (in metric 10) in canines

Somogyi effect: A condition in which the blood glucose level increases if too much insulin is given. It occurs when insulin causes the blood glucose level to go so low it stimulates the production of other hormones in the body such as epinephrine which promote the breakdown of glycogen (the chemical compound which the body uses to store glucose) and increases the 
blood glucose level above normal. It is also called rebound hyperglycemia or insulin-induced hyperglycemia.

Stress-induced hyperglycemia: A condition in cats in which the blood glucose level becomes abnormally high when the animal is stressed, e.g., in the veterinarian's office.

Subcutaneous Injection: Putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and syringe.

Sugar Diabetes: Former term for diabetes mellitus.

Syringe: A device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues. The syringe for insulin has a hollow plastic tube with a plunger inside and a needle on the end and units marked on the side.

Type I diabetes: A form of diabetes in which so little insulin is produced that supplemental insulin must be given for the animal to live. Also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

Type II diabetes: A type of diabetes mellitus in which although the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, they are not immediately life-threatening, and the animal can survive without supplemental insulin. Also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

Unit of Insulin: The basic measure of insulin. U-100 insulin means 100 units of insulin per milliliter (mL) or cubic centimeter (cc) of solution. Most insulin made today in the United States and Canada is U-100. Some countries like Canada there is a U-40 insulin used in pets called caninsulin and requires using a u-40 syringe.

Urine Testing: Also called urinalysis; a test of a urine sample to diagnose diseases of the urinary system and other body systems. 
I use keto-diastix made by Bayer to test Queenie
The teststrip tells you if there is glucose or ketones present in the urine.

Urine Test - How to: and here

UTI: Urinary Tract Infection
This website is dedicated to providing up-to-date information for owners of diabetic pets.
The site was started back in May of 1997 and was called Diabetes and My Dog Queenie!
It is owned by Judy Dick and is and will remain ad free
Both urls lead to the same site and are both owned by Judy Dick and Queenie
This website was orginally started by Kris Trower in 1995 when her dog Sissy was diagnosed with diabetes
She contacted me on March 11, 2002 and asked me if I would be interested in taking over her website!
I jumped at the chance because this was one of the first two websites ever on the web about diabetic
animals and where I found help for Queenie back in 1995 and Kris was instrumental in helping me start Queenie's website. She asked if I could leave the website basically intact and it is identical to what it originally was with new additions and all links that no longer fixed were replaced. The internet owes Kris and her courgeous canine Sissy a big vote of thanks for making this one of the first starting places to learn.  Donna has put her backed up copy of all the webpages that were on at the following url